Small intestine——The main place for nutrient digestion and absorption
Small intestine connects with gastric pylorus from the upper end and cecum from the lower end, divided into duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Nutrients are decomposed into absorbable small molecular substances and absorbed into blood and lymph circulation in small intestine, mainly by a chemical digestion of pancreatic juice, bile and intestinal fluid, as well as a mechanical digestion of small intestine motility. Intestinal villi expanded nutrient absorption area of small intestine, which negatively affects nutrient absorption once injured.
Large intestine——The Waste filter
Large intestine is divided into cecum, colon, and rectum. It is the end of digestive tract, with a core function of absorbing water, electrolytes and other useful components (volatile fatty acids, etc.) exist in feces. A downward movement of feces, which is motivated by secreting mucus proteins as goblet cells in large intestine is high, will protect intestinal wall from a mechanical injury.
Microorganisms’ constant fermentation over food residues, and the huge and complex ecosystem formed by bacteria, both of these two activities that happen in large intestine play an important role in maintaining a normal internal environment of the body.
Comparison of tissue structure of small intestine and large intestine
In actual production, in order to maximize the production efficiency, the intestinal tract of breeding animals must carry out feed conversion under high load, which is facing a risk of injury all the time. First of all, a high content protein in feed causes a stress reaction of intestinal mucosa; secondly, intestinal is always invaded by pathogenic microorganisms; moreover, quality of living environment and changes in temperature and humidity, etc. will cause damages to intestinal mucosa.
The crisis always exists, the age of AGP-free, how to resolve is worth thinking!
A screening and usage of AGP substitution is becoming an inevitable move, due to the prohibition of AGP announced in China. Medium and short-chain fatty acid esters have an unique stomach-feeding performance, broader antibacterial spectrum, and functional nutritional characteristic. For instance, tributyrin starts the release of butyric acid, of which maximize the supply to intestinal mucosa, moreover, tributyrin is able to get rid of a stink smell when free butyric acid disappears, bypass the stomach 100% and protects intestine. α-monolaurin, as the typical of medium-chain fatty acid esters, has an excellent antibacterial performance, especially on Clos’tridium ‘perfringens and Campylo’bacter jejuni. With an exclusive effect on broad-spectrum antibacterial performance and intestinal mucosal immunity, both plant essential oil and probiotics are suitable options for AGP substitution. Some certain functional amino acids can also repair damaged mucosa to improve mucosal stress resistance, by nutrient supply from intestinal mucosa, which deserves attentions as well.
Tributyrin gets to pass through stomach without being decomposed or absorbed all by its special feature, and it provides an antibacterial performance that surpasses many other products, especially on the pathogens (such as Salmonella and Clostridium perfringens) are ‘colonized in hindgut and cecum.
It can be seen from the table above that α-monolaurin acid glyceride is highly sensitive to Clostridium perfringens which is easy to cause flatulence in sows and ‘necro’tizing enteritis in swine and poultry.
With a grand scale of AGP prohibition is approaching, intestinal problems will be in an upward trend in no time. We suggest an overall consideration should be laid on intestinal problems when we enter the AGP-free era. An adequate alternative to AGP will be required to pay attention to the absorption of water and electrolytes in large intestine, while focusing on the digestion and absorption of small intestine.
When we say breeding, we talk about intestine protection, as an healthy intestine ensures benefits.